Fournié G, Waret-Szkuta A, Camacho A, Yigezu LM, Pfeiffer DU, Roger F. A dynamic model of transmission and elimination of peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopia. The model considered a population stratified in seven age-groups (0–3 months-old, 3–6 months-old, 6–12 months-old, 12–24 months-old, 24–36 months-old, 36–48 months-old, and 48 months and older), the age structure being fixed a priori to match the age stratification of the serological survey. Because these symptoms are similar to those of other diseases such as rinderpest, pasteurellosis, and bluetongue (7), the clinical diagnosis is taken as provisional until confirmed by a laboratory. (32), it looks safer to implement at least 2 mass vaccination campaigns, firstly because GSCE strategy provides highest reduction in deaths and cases; secondly a mass vaccination could overcome the reticence of some herders. Distribution of vaccine/antivirals and the ‘least spread line' in a stratified population. Cachan: Lavoisier (2003). Figure 8 shows, for each scenario, the cumulative costs of the vaccination campaign (i.e., the cost of administrated? Front. We considered that animal identification is done during the vaccination. Articles, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. The random (not targeted) strategies are the most expensive in terms of vaccine-administration costs and vaccine wastage: the more vaccine doses are distributed randomly, the more are wasted. (2010) 116:161–5. The rolling mechanism of this vaccine bank ensures that the purchased vaccines are produced upon request, thereby extending the expiry date of vaccines delivered to the country. (2014) 2:27–33. The estimated cost of a dose of PPR vaccine in Somalia was USD 0.12 which compares favourably with the USD 0.10 reported by Jones et al. Historically, vaccinations have saved lives and money. Elements in Equations (1a) and (1b) are the matrix elements for the within-young (both i,j ≤ 3) and within-old (both i,j > 3) groups, respectively, and correspond to the block diagonal elements of the transmission matrix. The cumulative vaccination costs for GSCE strategy, over the period 2018–2030, are higher than other strategies, mainly because of the mass campaign implemented at the beginning. Nevertheless, for small ruminants' owners, vaccinating an animal costs 0.10 USD against 1.40 USD for giving antibiotics treatment (10). Lyons NA, Jemberu WT, Chaka H, Salt JS, Rushton J. Field-derived estimates of costs for peste des petits ruminants vaccination in Ethiopia. Integrating the supply chain of PPR vaccine with other veterinary or health commodities could reduce cost, as well as increase uptake. To calibrate the transmission model, we consider that <1% of the population was initially infectious and let the system run for 100 years. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199547, 26. We ran 50 independent chains of 1,000 iterations. Available online at: Table 3. And the cost of vaccinating is minor compared with treating the disease or paying to replace a dead goat. A 2018 study published in The Lancet found that it can cost $1 billion to fund the research and development of a new vaccine. Pfizer’s vaccine costs about $20, while Moderna’s is $15 to $25, based on agreements the companies have struck to supply their vaccines to the U.S. government. (1987) 40:103–12. 22. Focusing on the GSCE scenarios, if other countries are not implementing any vaccination campaign (vaccination coverage = 0%), the number of PPR-related deaths in Mauritania will be between 4 and 20% higher depending on vaccination month. 39. Hammami P, Lancelot R, Lesnoff M. Modelling the dynamics of post-vaccination immunity rate in a population of sahelian sheep after a vaccination campaign against peste des petits ruminants virus. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0904740106, 34. There are additional expenses that are incurred when maintaining stock that also need to … Thus, the last 7 chapters emphasize the traditional prophylactic measures, potency of vaccines and possibility of vaccine use, the history of vaccine improvement, recent advances in vaccine development, implementation of international control campaigns for the eradication of RP and PPR by using vaccine, and a brief overview of the pathogenesis and eradication of measles virus. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW). For each animal, information about species, sex, and age (based on teeth counting) were also collected. We considered several scenarios in which the percentage of vaccinated animals among imported animals could vary from 0 (no vaccination) to 100% (all the animals are vaccinated). In each age-group, susceptible animals (S) move to the latent state (E) after effective contacts with infectious animals (I), and subsequently become infectious (I). Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a viral infectious disease affecting domestic (goats and sheep) and small wild ruminants (1, 2). • Targeted scenario (ST): all animals between 4 and 12 months of age are vaccinated. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Stat Med. BCR values for vaccination campaigns implement in the period December-March fluctuate between the two values reported in this article. The youngest age-group (0–3 months old) accounts for the fact that a large fraction (around 92%) of newborn animals can be protected from the disease over the first 3 months of their life due to the potential inheritance of maternal antibodies against PPRV (27, 29). The avoided treatment expenses (BM) can be estimated from the number of cases prevented as. Bodjo SC, Couacy-Hymann E, Koffi MY, Danho T. Assessment of the duration of maternal antibodies specific to the homologous peste des petits ruminant vaccine “Nigeria 75/1" in Djallonké Lambs. Figure 6. The maximal screening costs for strategy, decrease during the three periods, except for the SR strategy. Springer-Verlag New York (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.013, 45. The BS can be estimated from the number of averted deaths in both groups as: Where YoungDeaths_Averted and AdultDeaths_Averted indicate the number of PPR-related deaths averted in the young and adult groups. Finally, in 2010 a national serosurvey campaign was conducted as part of the VACNADA project activities to estimate PPR prevalence in 10 Wilayas (circles in Figure 1). Disrupting the vaccination could cause the re-insurgence of PPR, due to the re-introduction of the virus by transboundary movements, with catastrophic effects on small ruminants' production, as it has occurred in Morocco during 2016. Received: 11 April 2019; Accepted: 08 July 2019; Published: 23 July 2019. The vaccine should be cost-effective and price should not be a barrier to access including in low and middle income countries. « Back to Vaccines For Children program « Back to Immunization Managers Home page Prices last reviewed/updated: September 1, 2020 Note 1: The CDC Vaccine Price Lists posted on this website provide current vaccine contract prices and list the private sector vaccine prices for general information. doi: 10.4314/biokem.v18i2.56408. ^ONARDEL (Office National de Recherche et Développement de l'Elevage), it is the competent body for animal health in Mauritania, 1. GSCE-vaccination appears to be the most effective strategy in terms of deaths and case reduction. In 2013, a PPR vaccine bank for Africa was established for the provision of high quality PPR vaccines to eligible African countries. The maximal screening cost (cs) depends on the total vaccination cost (cV), the PPR prevalence and also the fraction of wastage. Mauritania geographical extension and the distribution of supporting infrastructure for maintaining the vaccine cold chain, constrain the number and the duration of field missions by Veterinary Services. Herders were chosen according to husbandry practices: transhumant or sedentary. The length of the rod corresponds to the number of doses wasted because given to already infected individuals. Symptomatic animals are treated with antibiotics for a week (30) and vitamins. Figure 1. 1. The latter two could change along the years. The best model had the lowest information criterion (DIC) (49) value. On the other hand, other works (17–19) showed that other costs, like the logistic (fuel for vehicles, maintenance of the cold chain etc.) Seven hundred and eight herders were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire over the events of the last 12 months, in particular: PPR knowledge; PPR cases and related deaths in the herd; intervention costs and the impact of the disease on the animal production, and epidemiological and economic data collected for more than 9,200 animals. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important viral diseases of goats and sheep. However, other pathogens circulating in the region, like Pasteurellosis, could resurge after PPR eradication and disrupt the production chain. A thermostable presentation of PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was adopted using a combination of TD and LS stabilizers by Mariner and co workers. The sub-clinical form is frequent in Sahelian ruminants, in particular among sheep: the infected animal, although not showing any clinical signs, may shed the virus and transmit it to other animals by close contact (10). Mauritania encompasses several climatic areas (from hyper-arid in the North, to sub-humid in the South along the river Senegal) and demographic trends and transhumance's schedules depend on the natural resources available along the year, and could vary between years. (2013) 165:38–44. More active methods of vaccination, such as door-to-door or capture-vaccinate-release, achieved higher vaccination coverage in free-roaming dog populations but were more costly. Prev Vet Med. Table 3 reports some of the survey results that have been used to calibrate the model. (31) estimated a lower value of the PVIR threshold, around 61.7% for the Ethiopian small ruminant population. Median cumulative number of cases (A) and deaths (B) averted by vaccination. At the equilibrium, we estimated the proportion of deaths, births, entries and exits during the last 12 months, i.e.. Where x indicates the annual number of one of the events (death, birth, entry and exit) as simulated by our model. In this analysis we are interested in assessing the viability and economical usefulness of the “identification and screening” procedure. Our model includes some characteristics of the Mauritania husbandry practices, like births and movement's seasonality. Note: The table below reflects contracts for the 2020-2021 Adult Flu. State health authorities have called on Congress to provide $8.4 billion. Grant 727393-PALE-Blu. The PVIR threshold depends on the basic reproduction ratio R0 that could vary depending on the characteristics of the geographical area and epidemic setting. Figure 8. Here, we developed a mathematical model to assess the impact of four vaccination strategies (including the GSCE one), the importance of their timing of implementation and the usefulness of individual animal identification on the reduction of PPR burden. New search features Acronym Blog Free tools " Available online at: (2010) 7:873–85. The committee, in its recommendations submitted to the government, mentioned that “NLEM is a dynamic document and there is scope to explore the possibility to include other veterinary vaccines like camel pox vaccine, sheep pox vaccine, PPR vaccine (given for the highly contagious Goat Plague), goat pox vaccine, Orf vaccine, buffalo pox vaccine, and poultry vaccines, etc., in the NLEM at … The model was calibrated on data collected through ad-hoc surveys about demographic dynamics, disease impact, and national seroprevalence using Monte Carlo Markov Chain procedure. Contract prices are those for CDC vaccine contracts that are established for the … In Table 5, we identified in bold, for each strategy, the most effective month of vaccination. Figure 4. Where YoungCases_Averted and AdultCases_Averted indicate the number of PPR cases averted in the young and adult groups. 35. Field-derived estimates of costs for Peste des Petits Ruminants vaccination in Ethiopia For all scenarios, the estimated revenue is around one order of magnitude higher than the cost for vaccination. This is an effect of the previous mass vaccination campaign. On the other hand, population renewal sustains endemicity of the virus. Epidemiol Infect. It is imperative that up-to-date information on circulating virus strains in any geographical location be known for selection of appropriate vaccine strains. (2005) 70:51–7. (54). Peste de petits ruminants (PPR), a viral disease representing a major burden for sheep and goat farmers across Africa and Asia, is now targeted for eradication through mass vaccination campaigns. Disease-related costs were distinguished from vaccination-related ones. We supposed that the mortality rate was the same for all age groups (μ) except the last one (μ5). doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.01012.x, 46. Spickler AR. X-axes correspond to the vaccine wastage, while y axis corresponds to maximal screening cost, zero value indicating that the procedure is not convenient. Finally, Figure 5D shows the year-cumulative number of PPR-related deaths. 40. From this page, you can get to all of the vaccines licensed in the US. Maximal Screening cost per animal by vaccination strategy and period. On the day of vaccination animals were found to be negative for PPR specific antibodies whilst high titre virus neutralising antibodies were detected by second week of vaccination and reached at peak (log 4.76–5.31) on day 28 post vaccination, the day the animals were challenged, in both groups of vaccinated animals (Fig. Solid lines indicate the end/beginning of the year, while dashed line indicates Tabaski date. Pictorial representation of the epidemiological model for the first and i-th age group. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Abbreviation to define. 37–41%) (40). 1/2005). Results from the baseline case. Moreover, depending on the particular test used, results couldn't be immediate thus complicating the vaccination procedure. Available online at:, 51. On the other hand, the GSCE strategies, independently of the month, prevent the largest number of cases and deaths. Random strategies (SR) are the less effective in terms of the number of vaccine doses distributed (Q), wastage (W), and reduction of PPR-related deaths, whilst the GSCE strategies are, in the long term, the most effective in terms of cases and deaths reduction. Consequently, the total disease-related cost is estimated as follow: Two types of costs intervene in the cost of vaccination: the public and the private contribution. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190296, 33. (2016) 11:e0161769. All questions regarding the private sector prices should be directed to the manufacturers. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing (2017). The BCR estimated for GSCE strategies in our model varies between 19.4 and 24.9 depending on the month of implementation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Available online at: (accessed December 3, 2018). Reaching this level of vaccination coverage would be possible vaccinating animal at the border. We sampled from the posterior distribution of the parameters (α, μ, μ5, incoming, outgoing) using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, assuming uniform priors. Our model considers that vaccination is implemented in 1 month only, whilst Veterinary Service takes around 6 months to cover all the national territory (between October and April). Each herder pays a contribution of cpri = 0.1$ for each animal vaccinated. SR, National Strategy; ST, Targeted scenario; SM, Mixed scenario (SM) and GSCE, Global Strategy for Control and Eradication. Indeed, as for rinderpest, there are a very efficacious attenuated PPR vaccines that provides lifelong immunity and efficient PPR specific diagnostic tools for disease surveillance (12–15). Except for vaccination implemented in March, for the SR case the benefits, during the first years, are comparable to vaccination costs. Apolloni A, Nicolas G, Coste C, El Mamy AB, Yahya B, El Arbi AS, et al. The PPR-related mortality rate, or fatality rate (p), varies with age. In fact, the hepatitis B vaccine was the first vaccine for which long-term protection was rigorously studied; this was perhaps because of the originally higher cost compared with other infant vaccines or—at least in industrialized countries—owing to the implementation at a younger age although risk exposure would start in adolescence or adulthood. Abraham G, Sintayehu A, Libeau G, Albina E, Roger F, Laekemariam Y, et al. On average, every year, almost 2.5 million small ruminants would be affected by PPR and among them almost 8.5 × 105 die of the disease. Numerical simulations were used to estimate the number of averted deaths over the next 12 years. Rationale for the eradication of PPR 13 1.1. Private sector prices are those reported by vaccine manufacturers annually to CDC. The country is divided in 15 Wilayas (i.e., regions), subdivided in 44 Moughataas (departments). Summary table of disease impact survey by type of rearing. At the equilibrium, we estimated, for each age-group the number of recovered animals (Ra) and the total number of deaths caused by the infection in the last year (D) among the infected animals in the last year (Z). In a two-decade study, the CDC analyzed the benefits of immunization during the Vaccines for Children Program era, 1994-2013. Sheep and goats older than 3 months and coming from 21 villages in 10 Wilayas were sampled for a total of 1,897 small ruminants (711 goats and 1,186 sheep). Cumulative costs and benefits from the different vaccination scenario. Vet Microbiol. To cut the cost of vaccination campaigns, a bivalent vaccine effective against both pox and peste des petits ruminants has been developed. Investigation of a new pathological condition of camels in Ethiopia. Covid-19 (Coronavirus) Tests Price in India State-wise: The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has left it to state governments to decide the cost of Covid-19 tests. A retrospective study in Mauritania. The government of Bangladesh delivers the PPRV vaccine at a very low subsidized cost (0.60 USD (50 BDT) per vial for 100 doses) but the effectiveness of the vaccine had been in question from the very beginning of its introduction (Sarkar et al. (2019) 163:37–43. Vaccine 31 , 260 – 270 . A dynamic model for cost-benefit analyses of foot-and-mouth disease control strategies. We considered a disease-free population, where the population in each age class (Na) was susceptible (no infected animal) to study the demographic dynamics of the population. Parida S, Muniraju M, Mahapatra M, Muthuchelvan D, Buczkowski H, Banyard AC. In the absence of a vaccine the best way to fight it is by detecting infected cases early and isolate them to prevent its spread. General principles and SWOT analysis 17 2. Small ruminants vaccination campaigns against PPR are implemented since 2008 but the coverage rate remains low (ranging from 2 to 8% between 2008 and 2010; and in 2018 reaching 15.6% of the population) (10). 5. Arch Virol. For each strategy we have considered three periods (2018–2020; 2020–2025; 2025–2030) to take account of possible variations in vaccine wastage. Note: The table below reflects contracts for the 2020-2021 Pediatric Flu. At one-year coarser temporal scale, the serological estimates are comparable to collected data. PPR abbreviation. Results are shown in Supplementary Table 2. Because of this, and only for the first group, an extra compartment “Imm” is added to account for animals protected by maternal antibodies. The number of effective vaccine doses is the quantity of vaccine that is given to susceptible animals: The quantity of effective doses varies according to the strategy but also depending on the period of the year and the health status of the population.
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