[160][o] Discouraged, Grant considered resigning but Sherman convinced him to stay. would subject him to teasing and ridicule. [516] The Democrats nominated Governor Samuel J. Tilden of New York. [502], The St. Louis jury acquitted Babcock, but there was enough evidence revealed that Grant reluctantly dismissed him from the White House, although Babcock kept his position of Superintendent of Public Buildings in Washington. [285] In December 1867, Congress voted to keep Stanton, who was reinstated by a Senate Committee on Friday, January 10, 1868. Who was Ulysses S. Grant's vice president? [108][j] In a few months, Grant paid off his debts. Grant farmed (for the next four years[93]), using Julia's slave Dan, on his brother-in-law's property, Wish-ton-wish, near St. "[259] Johnston's Tennessee army surrendered on April 26, 1865, Richard Taylor's Alabama army on May 4, and Kirby Smith's Texas army on May 26, ending the war. [545] Grant, however, warned Ward that if his firm engaged in government business he would dissolve their partnership. [215], On March 2, 1864, Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general, giving him command of all Union Armies. [324] During his first term, Reconstruction took precedence. In September 1873, Jay Cooke & Company, a New York brokerage house, collapsed after it failed to sell all of the bonds issued by Cooke's Northern Pacific Railway. He made a good living, but the work conditions were horribleskinned and raw animal carcasses everywhere, their hides tossed into kettles of stinging, stinking chemicals. [555] Ward was convicted of fraud in October 1885, months after Grant's death, and served six and a half years in prison. It was a mostly quiet time in world history and he had a good man to guide him. In 1870, … In a conspiracy that also targeted top cabinet members in one last effort to topple the Union, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at the theater, and died the next morning. As president, Grant was an effective civil rights executive who worked with the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction to protect blacks and reestablish the public credit. [521], After leaving the White House, Grant said he "was never so happy in my life." [572] The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant was a critical and commercial success. [557], Throughout his career, Grant repeatedly told highly detailed stories of his military experiences, often making slight mistakes in terms of dates and locations. [156] Grant, now realizing that the South was determined to fight and that the war would not be won with one battle, would later write, "Then, indeed, I gave up all idea of saving the Union except by complete conquest. Grant and General James B. McPherson planned to bypass Columbus and with a force of 25,000 troops, move against Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. Serving as assistant quartermaster, made Grant a complete soldier, learning how to supply an entire army, and during the Civil War, gave Grant the training to sustain large armies. ", The toppling of Grant's statue, prompted a response from U.C. Militarily evaluated, Grant was a modern general and "a skillful leader who had a natural grasp of tactics and strategy. [226] He was popular, and there was talk that a Union victory early in the year could lead to his candidacy for the presidency. All rights reserved. [411] On March 18, 1869, he signed the Public Credit Act of 1869 that guaranteed bondholders would be repaid in "coin or its equivalent", while greenbacks would gradually be redeemed by the Treasury and replaced by notes backed by specie. Advancing west, Grant defeated Pemberton's army at the Battle of Champion Hill on May 16, forcing their retreat into Vicksburg. [66], Historians increasingly have pointed to the importance of Grant's experience as an assistant quartermaster during the war. As president, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice, and prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan. [309] Rawlins died in office, and Grant appointed William W. Belknap Secretary of War. Domestically he wasn't too successful, in fact his administration was one of the most corrupt in American history. To restore his family's income and reputation, Grant wrote several articles on his Civil War campaigns for, Today, medical historians believed he suffered from a T. Knowing of Grant and Julia's financial difficulties, Congress sought to honor him and restored him to the rank of General of the Army with full retirement pay—Grant's assumption of the presidency in 1869 had required that he resign his commission and forfeit his (and his widow's) pension. His real name was Hirsham Ulysses Grant, but as was shy of his initials i.e. [184][185] Smuggling of cotton was rampant, while the price of cotton skyrocketed. Grant and Delano, his second Secretary of Interior, were third cousins. [219] Grant established his headquarters with General George Meade's Army of the Potomac in Culpeper, north-west of Richmond, and met weekly with Lincoln and Stanton in Washington. [24] Grant was accepted on July 1, although he doubted his academic abilities. Worst Presidents: Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) Serving right after Johnson, he presided over an outbreak of corruption, but had good intentions. His father was a tanner who took animal hides and processed them into leather. Later Grant openly broke with Johnson over Reconstruction policies; Grant used the Reconstruction Acts, which had been passed over Johnson's veto, to enforce civil rights for recently freed African Americans. They would then march ten miles east to Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, with the aid of gunboats, opening both rivers and allowing the Union access further south. [252] Grant was in communication with Lee before he entrusted his aide Orville Babcock to carry his last dispatch to Lee requesting his surrender with instructions to escort him to a meeting place of Lee's choosing. However, after the war he retired to become a farmer. [123] Major General John C. Frémont, Union commander of the West, passed over senior generals and appointed Grant commander of the District of Southeastern Missouri. "[594] White believed Grant was "an exceptional person and leader. [357] As promised, Hayes withdrew federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, which marked the end of Reconstruction. [189] Outraged that gold paid for southern cotton, Grant required two permits, one from the Treasury and one from the Union Army, to purchase cotton. [518] Hayes was ruled President by the commission; to forestall Democratic protests, Republicans agreed to the Compromise of 1877, in which the last troops were withdrawn from Southern capitals. The Dominican Republic would be annexed for $1.5 million and Samaná Bay would be lease-purchased for $2 million. [101] Although Grant was not an abolitionist, he was not considered a "slavery man", and could not bring himself to force a slave to do work. In 1868, Grant sought the presidency and won due to his popularity against Horatio Seymour who won the nomination for the Democrats over the incumbent Andrew Johnson. [280] Grant privately called Johnson's speeches a "national disgrace" and he left the tour early. [524] (~ $600,000 in 2019 dollars)[525] Preparing for the tour, they arrived in Philadelphia on May 10, 1877, and were honored with celebrations during the week before their departure. [429], The Liberal Republicans, composed of reformers, men who supported low tariffs, and those who opposed Grant's prosecution of the Klan, broke from Grant and the Republican Party. 1903. However, Grant also wrote that the Mexican war was morally unjust and that the territorial gains were designed to expand slavery, stating, "I was bitterly opposed to the measure ... and to this day, regard the war which resulted as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation." [359] He appointed Ely S. Parker, a Seneca and member of his wartime staff, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the first Native American to serve in this position, surprising many around him. [234] On May 12, Grant attempted to break through Lee's Muleshoe salient guarded by Confederate artillery, resulting in one of the bloodiest assaults of the Civil War, known as the Bloody Angle. [541], When Grant had returned to America from his costly world tour, he had depleted most of his savings and needed to earn money and find a new home. Life. In May 1884, enough investments went bad to convince Ward that the firm would soon be bankrupt. Noting President Grant's endorsement of the 15th Amendment and prosecution of the Klan, Downs said, "When the mob members tore down Grant’s bust, they unknowingly built upon a 150-year effort to erase and defame him.". [349], By 1875, Redeemer Democrats had taken control of all but three Southern states. Wilson died 2 years, 263 days into this term, and the … [112] He was torn between his increasingly anti-slavery views and the fact that his wife remained a staunch Democrat. On February 14, Foote's gunboats began bombarding the fort, only to be repulsed by its heavy guns. [2] His ancestors Matthew and Priscilla Grant arrived aboard the ship Mary and John at Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. [512] In his December 5, 1876, Eighth Annual Message, Grant apologized to the nation and admitted mistakes were made: "Failures have been errors of judgement, not of intent. As president, Grant worked with the Radical Republicans in the Reconstruction of … [503][bd], The Interior Department under Secretary Columbus Delano, whom Grant appointed to replace Cox, was rife with fraud and corrupt agents and Delano was forced to resign. [353] Grant signed it as the Civil Rights Act of 1875, but there was little enforcement and the Supreme Court ruled the law unconstitutional in 1883. Confederate General Van Dorn's raid on Holly Springs (December 20), prevented many Jewish people from potential expulsion. Union reinforcements arrived, giving Grant a total force of over 40,000 men. [507], After the Democrats took control of the House in 1875, more corruption in federal departments was exposed. [270], President Johnson's Reconstruction policy included a speedy return of the former Confederates to Congress, reinstate whites to office in the South, and relegate blacks to second-class citizenship. [222] Grant and Meade would make a direct frontal attack on Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, while Sherman—now chief of the western armies—was to destroy Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee and take Atlanta. On March 3, Halleck sent a telegram to Washington complaining that he had no communication with Grant for a week. "[300] The Democrats and their Klan supporters focused mainly on ending Reconstruction intimidating Blacks, and returning control of the South to the white Democrats and the planter class, alienating War Democrats in the North. [390], American policy was to remain neutral during the Ten Years' War (1868–78), a series of long bloody revolts that were taking place in Cuba against Spanish rule. [44] Grant was happy with his new commander but looked forward to the end of his military service and a possible teaching career. Location Currently not on view Object Name medal, political depicted Grant, Ulysses S. referenced Wilson, Henry maker Scovill Manufacturing Company Measurements …
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